Leonid Meteor Shower, November 1833


Leonid Meteor Shower, November 13, 1833.jpg


The Recent Phenomena In The Heavens.


The brilliant meteors observed in the sky on the 13th inst, have been noticed in various parts of our country as far south as the City of Norfolk, Virg. These 'falling stars' seemed to radiate from one spot in the heavens, about sixteen degrees south of the zenith, and shot downwards at various angles of declination, crossing each others' tracks.


Many of these meteors resembled the most brilliant sky-rockets, some of them leaving behind a trail of fire diverging like that of a comet. The atmosphere was completely filled with them, and the looker-on might indeed exclaim in admiration at the sublime spectacle,


"The Heavens declare the glory of God,

And the firmament showeth his handwork."


We have procured through the kindness of a friend a hasty engraving of the "stars falling from Heaven" as they were noticed in this region. It may, perhaps, give some slight notion of this rare phenomenon to those who were unfortunate enough not to witness this freak of Nature.


Independent Inquirer, Saturday, November 23, 1833.

William E. Ryther, Editor.


[William E. Ryther also appends an extensive analysis by Yale professor Denison Olmsted. The local engraver's name is not given.]


The first Leonid meteor shower arrived on November 13, 1833. The Washington Telegraph commented--- "Had not the days of superstition transpired, this event might well add tenfold terror to the present political condition of the country." This is an allusion to the Nullification Crisis, when South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union.


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The Electric Universe


Reliable and not politicized, weaponized, or "politically correct" information relating to Brattleboro's terraced structure, earthquakes, auroras, the West River Valley's geological electrical "Lichtenberg figures", and so-called "climate change", available at http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp with this synopsis---


Introduction


In the wake of recent discoveries, a new way of seeing the physical universe is emerging. The new vantage point emphasizes the role of electricity in space and shows the negligible contribution of gravity in cosmic events.


Images returned by high-powered telescopes and recent space probes have challenged astronomers' long-standing assumptions about galaxies and their constituent stars, about the evolution of our solar system, and about the nature and history of Earth.


The new discoveries also suggest that our early ancestors may have witnessed awe inspiring electrical events in the heavens--the source of myths and symbols around the world.


Cosmology


Today, magnetic fields are detected everywhere, even in the "empty" depths of intergalactic space. Magnetic fields cannot exist without causative electric currents. The naked electric force is 39 orders of magnitude (a thousand billion billion billion billion times) stronger than gravity. The visible universe is constituted almost entirely of electrically active plasma.


In the twentieth-century, the pioneers of plasma science inspired a new school of investigation called plasma cosmology. Plasma cosmologists suggest that electricity is the primary force organizing spiral galaxies and the astonishing galactic clusters now seen in deep space.


Plasma cosmology has achieved surprising success in predicting major discoveries of the space age. This new perspective does not require purely theoretical inventions based on mathematical assumptions like the Big Bang, dark matter, dark energy, neutron stars, or Black Holes.


Stars


An Electric Universe extends the findings of plasma cosmology to the formation and evolution of stars and their planetary satellites. Stars are formed at the intersections of galactic current filaments in dusty space plasma. The size of a star and its color are determined electrically and may change suddenly. Novae and supernovae are the explosive response of stars to a power surge in their galactic circuit.


Proponents of the Electric Universe suggest that there are no isolated islands in the universe. All objects in space, from subatomic particles to galactic clusters, are connected by manifestations of the electric force acting in real-time.


The Standard Model of the Sun proposes that pressure at the core of the Sun provokes a thermonuclear reaction. Proponents of this model say that this thermonuclear furnace causes the Sun to shine.


The Electric Sun Model, on the other hand, envisions thermonuclear reactions and neutrino production at or close to the surface of the Sun where the maximum exchange between the Sun and its external environment occurs.


It is electricity that energizes the stars, including the Sun, in a form of glow discharge. This external power source explains why the temperature of the Sun increases above the photosphere to coronal temperatures of 2 million degrees. Powerful plasma feedback effects maintain a steady output of visible solar radiation while variations in power input show up in the familiar sunspot cycle.


It is in the nature of a glow discharge that all stars possess a weak electric field beyond the corona. As charged particles of the solar wind move away from the Sun, they continue to be accelerated due to the Sun's electric field, which extends to the heliopause.


Watch Scientists Claim Discovery "Confirms" Standard Solar Model for more information on the differences between the two stellar models.


Comets


Comets are electrically charged bodies moving on elliptical orbits through the Sun's interplanetary electric field. As it approaches the Sun, the comet's swift radial movement develops arcing on the nucleus. The arcs produce jets of dust and ions that form the coma and visible tails.


Many comets are solid rocks with dry surfaces. The sharply defined features of comet nuclei make clear that they are not "dirty snowballs" sublimating in the Sun. Due to the electric force, a comet can entrain a mass of hydrogen from the Sun greater than the mass of the comet's nucleus. The unexpected X-rays of a cometary discharge can reach 2 million degrees.


Cometary nuclei reveal deeply cratered and blackened surfaces due to electric arcing. Since comet nuclei are eroded electrically, they could not survive across eons of solar system history and may have been produced much more recently than proposed in the Standard Model.


Planetary Science


In the recent history of the solar system, its electrical environment changed. Under changing electrical conditions planetary orbits changed as well. Close approaches of planets led to powerful electric arcing between planets and moons. All rocky bodies in the solar system show the massive scars of these kinds of electrical events.


Electric discharge scarring is occurring even now on Jupiter's closest moon, Io, and on Saturn's moon, Enceladus. Electrical activity continues on Mars, driving "dust devils" the size of Mount Everest - created by the electrical differential between the surface of Mars and surrounding space.


All of the dominant surface features of Mars show the patterns of electric discharge, suggesting that in the past a vast quantity of material was excavated electrically from Mars. Electric Universe proponents suggest that it was an interplanetary arc that created the Martian Valles Marineris, the largest known scar on a solid planet. Much of the rocky material exploding from Mars became comets, asteroids, and meteorites.


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Our Sun, like all stars, is a variable star. We must learn to live with the uncertainty of a star that is a product of its environment. We can expect our Sun to change when it enters regions of interstellar space where there is more or less dust, which alters the plasma characteristics. In the meantime, we can only look for reassurance by closely examining the behavior of nearby stars.

---Wal Thornhill


"While enormous time and resources have been poured into the effort to understand stars based on a single outdated idea, those familiar with plasma discharge phenomena have been paying close attention to the observed phenomena on the Sun and finding simple electrical explanations.


After 100 years of neglect, an electrical model of stars is just beginning to emerge. It is an engineer's view that offers a coherent understanding of our real place in the universe (cosmology) and practical insights for the future exploration of space.


If the Sun shines as an electric light 'plugged in' to the Electric Universe, the objective tests become obvious. Perhaps, with a real understanding of stars we may reach childhood's end in the cosmos."


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